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Thread: Finnish/Earlier Scandi axes - Kirves

  1. #21
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    I got to say "The Timmermann" makes it look so easy, great Vid.

  2. #22
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    I hadn’t seen that thread before now. There are some pretty interesting “tool walks” here that are kind of hidden outside general searches through the site.

    Watched the video all the way through. Very cool and interesting axes.

    The axes are that square-bearded in shape say rough building/shaping to me. Beams and joints. The ones in the video handle juggling and then hewing to make a nice beams. The two axes here seem like they would shear wood fiber using them to drop-cut and not so much lateral cutting for something like felling a good-sized tree. Guess that is obvious though lol.

    http://www.arctandria.no/author/jan-tore/page/2/


    https://culturecrafts.files.wordpres...418_205256.jpg

    These are from the following Norwegian site – worth a scroll with Google translate:

    https://tekniskbygningsvern.wordpress.com/tag/oks/







    Here's a neat site as well that has pictures of traditional Norwegian building axes and tools:
    https://hoveloghage.wordpress.com/tag/oks/


    “Pjål”

  3. #23
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    And some archive photos of axes in the Fin Army 1939-1945.



































  4. #24
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    http://www.leveraxe.com/en/

    Looks strange.

    Costs a ton !

  5. #25
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    Quote Originally Posted by Agent_H View Post
    . . .

    Billnäs or Kellikoski is hard to tell . . . )
    I am still curious about the axe mfr in the video "With a knife and an ax" (by Sakari Pälsi?). This is the closest I have found so far:



    I have followed this thread with interest and have started collecting information on Finnish (and other scandinavian) axes. So far I can only find a couple of Kellikoski branded axes with two marks above the name while I have only found Billnäs heads with one mark. Certainly not proof. I can't find a frame in the video that shows the head clear enough to positively identify. Oh, well.

    Bob

  6. #26
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    Quote Originally Posted by Agent_H View Post
    And some archive photos of axes in the Fin Army 1939-1945. . .
    Those are really neat pictures. Thanks for posting.

    For some reason I felt like matching these images:



    These images are the only ones I have found (so far) of Finnish heads with flag decals/labels.

    I also wonder if the Finns needed a lit cigarette in their mouth to properly examine an axe?

    Bob

  7. #27
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    Quote Originally Posted by rjdankert View Post
    I am still curious about the axe mfr in the video "With a knife and an ax" (by Sakari Pälsi?). This is the closest I have found so far:



    I have followed this thread with interest and have started collecting information on Finnish (and other scandinavian) axes. So far I can only find a couple of Kellikoski branded axes with two marks above the name while I have only found Billnäs heads with one mark. Certainly not proof. I can't find a frame in the video that shows the head clear enough to positively identify. Oh, well.

    Bob
    Bob, you got me looking at the Kellokoski story and it seems it was owned by several people, burned down several times. It kind of looks like the older ones were marked Marie-fors Bruk with their Crown, then at some point the stamp was replaced with the Kellokoski name mark. Maybe there was a time when the name Kellokoski was stamped with the Marie-fors crown and the model number? Maybe a shorter transition period in ownership or production?

    Great screen capture! - Think it would be safe to assume that it is a Kellokoski? The second mark could be the Marie-fors Bruk crown, next to the model number. I don’t personally know any Fins old enough to ask but after seeing your picture there that is what I think when I look at what you posted.


    Quote Originally Posted by rjdankert View Post
    Those are really neat pictures. Thanks for posting.

    For some reason I felt like matching these images:



    These images are the only ones I have found (so far) of Finnish heads with flag decals/labels.

    I also wonder if the Finns needed a lit cigarette in their mouth to properly examine an axe?

    Bob
    Maybe it causes a squint that is similar to using open sites on a rifle and ideal checking handle grain alignment lol.

  8. #28
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    Mariefors axes predate those marked Kellokoski and are harder to find. Like the Billnäs Ironworks, the Marifors-Kellokoski ironworks and its regional importance are pretty interesting as well. When you look at the catalog scans it looks like the two companies made pretty much the same patterns of axes with the same model numbering system up to a certain point.

    Kellokoski Iron Works History (Translated from Finnish as well as I can clean up to make sense)

    http://www.tuusula.fi/sivu.tmpl?sivu...&navipath=2284

    Kellokosken ironworks and the park-like setting, as well as the hospital give the Rapids a distinctive look. At present, along the Rapids there are about 5000 inhabitants and the driving industrial center of Tuusula.

    Kellokosken history can be seen to run from the 1750s with the establishment of the area two rälssitilaa. This location initially consisted of the Kellokosken Mansion. Actually, the Kellokosken Manor was started under construction by Erik Olander since the mid-1700s (1768-1775). After the Olander estate it was owned by several others. The Kellokosken estate developed agriculture and animal husbandry in addition to small-scale manufaktuuriteollisuutta. Before the ironworks was founded there was already the pottery workshop, a mill, and a sawmill.

    Works was established in 1795

    Founded in 1795 Kellokosken ie Mariefors Ironworks was the first industrial facility in Tuusula. Finland had had 82 ironworks, of which KeloKoski is on the order of 28th: per Ruukki's founding after authorization by Lars Falk and sold the production rights to the Kellokosken estate, the owner then being Lars Olof Nysten, who started the development of the ironworks. Early on, main product was wrought iron: fused and bar hammer-forged iron, from which could be forged a variety of objects.

    For the Kellokosken ironworks the 1800's were an eventful period: changes in ownership, bankruptcies ,and fires followed each other at a rapid rate. At times there was a lack of raw materials, the demand for it high, and often bar hammer to be obtained from the water. Off-peak times - in the early 1800s and again in the late 1800s - the Ironworks employed only a few blacksmith. Blacksmiths bought the ironworks owner of the pig iron and coals, and made kankirautaa (Wrought Iron) and nails. Completed and approved products such as th esepiltä cartridges were purchased at an agreed price.
    In 1824 production was approximately 95,000 kg kankirautaa (Wrought Iron). In the late 1840s the volume of production had fallen, but the number of products expanded. At the workshop, they prepared rims and bolts of iron, nails, hinges, tethers, tripods, horse shoes and nails, as well as axes, shovels, hoes, scythes, sickles, hammers and other tools.

    Until the 1860’s the Kellokosken mansion and ironworks had the same owner. In 1865, the estate owner Robert Björkenheim sold the ironworks and it soon became a limited company. In 1870 production increased, but in 1880 it was again bankrupt.

    Carlander era 1896-1963

    Kellokosken ironworks went bankrupt in 1895. The following year, in 1896, the ironworks found itself with new owners, the brothers John and Carl Fredrik Carlander bought the ironworks. Before the clock Rapids Carlander ironworks were engaged in activities in Björkboda. However, the mill location was geographically bad, because the supply of goods took place almost exclusively by sea. Björkboda the company's shareholder, engineer Sederberg , founded a new factory site for Kellokoskelta.

    The factory transfer to the rapids was a massive operation, and it was gradually implemented. Machinery, equipment, and inventory were transferred along with the employees and their families - a total of 177 people. At the end of the 1800’s The Great House was built for the ironworks workers as well as the detached houses in the early 1900s – dubbed Uusitalo and Peace Villa.

    During the Carlander ironworks era they developed quite a modern industrial establishment. Beginning after the devastating fire of 1898, large-scale renovation work was undertaken, which culminated in the 1930's. This allowed access to the energy plant and the construction of the fleet and the development and diversification of production. There was also the well-being and security of the staff and security held in concern. The last extensive new construction project was completed in 1938 which was a new dairy factory. The factory produced milk churn and other dairy dishes that were well-regarded in different parts of Finland. Clock boats were the most well-known Kellokosken products of the factories from the 1950s up until the 1970s.

    The Kellokosken mansion and later the ironworks were led by the community for nearly 200 years - a very self-contained, private community. Old-fashioned clock systems worked quickly until Carlander abandoned the factory in 1963.

    In addition to the jobs were offered a variety of services and trade schools for workers and their families. The region had its own library, fire department, church, cemetery, sauna, and laundry facilities. Factory maintained into the 20th century numerous sets of different activities: the choirs, band, suojeluskuntaosasto, volunteer fire department, and different leisure activities for children. Wooden houses were still constructed for the workers and their families. In the 1920s and 1930s, families were at a total of 95, and almost 400 people at its largest population.

    The building

    The first Kellokosken ironworks, ran by Lars Olof Nysten , built a Church for the workers’ needs. Ruukki's church was completed in 1800 and dominated the landscape in the middle of everything. The church is the oldest surviving building of the village. Over the years, the church has been repaired a few times. The current tower and external decorations were made in connection with the 1930 renovations.

    Factory production buildings were located on the east side of the river Kerava, and the wooden residential houses for workers were built on the west side of the river. Of 1898 a fire destroyed almost all wooden factory buildings, only the brick tinaamo, the foundry, and the forge hammer were spared. After the fire, the buildings were made of stone and brick. In the 1900’s, the building stock was renewed and production became more efficient. In 1930 the new buildings were painted white.

    Factory managers lived in villas, mainly on the east side of the river with separate living arrangements apart from its territory’s workers' houses. The names of the Workers' houses indicated their size, location, and construction time. The oldest preserved residential buildings are the Great House (Antipohvi) and the detached houses (Pikkupohvi). In the Greater House there lived 22 families and 12 families in the smaller houses. Of course the area was inhabited in the past, but the earlier buildings were destroyed by fire. Both the Central House and New House burned down in 1926, after which they were rebuilt.

    The current situation

    Kellokosken factory moved to Fiskars' ownership in 1962. Large-scale industrial production at the rapids were discontinued by the 1980s. At present, the factory in the former production buildings has tenants from a variety of companies and associations. The mill complex is being renovated and it is still used as a residence.

    Kellokosken ironworks area is a nationally valuable industrial region. The factory buildings are essentially from the 1890-1930’s. Together, they form the residential area and with ironworks church complex, it is possible to observe the industrial architecture and ironworks for the community circle.

    The manor house is now a hospital

    The Kellokosken mansion was sold to the State in the 1910’s. 131 cultivation plots were created in the space as well as 43 residential spaces. Sebastian Gripenberg designed the manor house and the park around it and it was introduced.



    Here is the 1922 catalog (at least the 10 pages that I can find but they relate to axes)

    Cover


    Catalog shot of the ironworks/facility


    Pricing and weights



    Models 3, 5, 6, and 7


    Models 8-11


    Models 12, 13, 14, 16


    Mariefors Model 14.1 (per poster - looks more like the Model 16.x to me)



    Model 17.2 (not shown in the scanned catalog)


    Models 20-23


    Models 15, 25, 26/x


    Models 27-30


    Mariefors Model 32.1 (Per poster)


    Hammers


    Kellokoski catalog 1940 – only one page of axes (p.51). Several models listed but not the variety found in earlier catalogs.




    Quote Originally Posted by Hacked View Post
    https://youtu.be/BUXUJXJG4Fw



    Here's a video I came across, shows some of the Finnish axes from various time periods and a Billnäs in use as well.
    That is a good video. Here is a screen capture of the axes in his house there:




    These look a lot like the same set at Jake Pogg posted in another thread.

    Quote Originally Posted by jake pogg View Post
    Last edited by Agent_H; 09-20-2016 at 06:32 PM.

  9. #29
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    Quote Originally Posted by Agent_H View Post
    . . .
    Think it would be safe to assume that it is a Kellokoski? . . .
    I would not.

    Quote Originally Posted by Agent_H View Post
    . . .
    Maybe it causes a squint that is similar to using open sites on a rifle and ideal checking handle grain alignment lol.
    I see what you mean. Also, sorta gives them an authoritative/expert critical eye look that they wouldn't otherwise have.

    Bob

  10. #30
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    Quote Originally Posted by Agent_H View Post
    . . .

    Quote Originally Posted by Hacked View Post
    https://youtu.be/BUXUJXJG4Fw



    Here's a video I came across, shows some of the Finnish axes from various time periods and a Billnäs in use as well.

    That is a good video.
    . . .
    In that video by Marcus Lepola he does some comparisons between a new Roselli Axe and a used Billnäs 12:3. At about 16:54 he mentions the cost of each. The new Roselli about 119 euros, while the Billnäs head was 10 euros. I don't know the age of the video, only that it was published on Nov 2, 2015, or when he bought the Billnäs.

    Now, where the hell can I get a Billnäs 12:3 head for only 10 euros ($11.19)?

    Bob

  11. #31
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    Over seas I'm sure the billnas heads are seen as Collins, Kelly, or plumb heads over here.

  12. #32
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    Quote Originally Posted by rjdankert View Post
    In that video by Marcus Lepola he does some comparisons between a new Roselli Axe and a used Billnäs 12:3. At about 16:54 he mentions the cost of each. The new Roselli about 119 euros, while the Billnäs head was 10 euros. I don't know the age of the video, only that it was published on Nov 2, 2015, or when he bought the Billnäs.

    Now, where the hell can I get a Billnäs 12:3 head for only 10 euros ($11.19)?

    Bob
    I have no clue. They go for that on Huuto.net which is a Finnish domestic Craigslist/eBay. The sellers there weren't receptive to shipping overseas when I contacted them before bidding.

  13. #33
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    I am fairly certain this one is a Billnäs Model 12.1. I am thinking 12.1 based on the pattern and it weighed 3lbs 5oz. So it weighs more than a fresh 12.2 and it was worn.



    It was obviously used as an axe before I got ahold of it. The poll is knocked down a touch from use. If you pick one up that is something to keep in mind as it seems that when the polls are used hard like that it isn’t just the poll that flattens out. It also can create a little bulge in the eye – not a big deal but you have to compensate for it in the back of the tongue.



    The handle came from quarter sawn hickory but after cutting the initial blank out a crack showed up. I wood glued it and used small gauge fishing line to poke it in there deep and clamped it. Left it for about 4 days. That was after initial material removal but before final shaping - I figure if there is a break in the handle I don’t think it will be there. It only shows about a .25 the way though the swell. Definitely not the quality of wood work found in the Fin Army pictures.



    The handle is 27” and was fun to shape up but it took me a while to get it fitted properly. I did try to get the better aspects of the handle plans I found into one handle. Defined drop to the swell, overall oval shape, shoulder slimmed so it just slips into the eye, thinner in the belly and back than the shoulder/grip. I was going to do more of a pronounced knob but given the crack thought I should leave it a bit big. Maybe a couple of inches shorter maybe next time – wasn’t until about half way through that I realized I was unintentionally shaping it like an American axe - might have been I didn't have a cigarette going






    The edge still needs a little attention but it split a couple of the fir rounds I had here for a pit fire this weekend.

    They seem like they would make for nice compact axes but I haven’t really put it to any real test.

    A Model 7 on a 22-25" handle would make for a fine tool as well.
    Last edited by Agent_H; 09-21-2016 at 06:41 PM.

  14. #34
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    Couple of more videos from another apparent Finnish axe enthusiast.

  15. #35
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    Quote Originally Posted by Hacked View Post




    Couple of more videos from another apparent Finnish axe enthusiast.
    Nice videos Hacked. I was interested how he went about the crosswedge.


    Billnäs Ironworks - Billnäs Bruk: 30's, 50's, 80's films tools manufacturing

    English:













    Here are some of the stamps for Billnäs included with what I think of as kind of running concurrent with, then over to Fiskars ownership. Might give a general idea of the age of the axes (Billnäs and the older Fiskars axes) – more or less a start at it at least.



    DarthTaco posted an axe recently that came to mind with this 1897 Wetterlings catalog – hope you don’t mind me reposting it here. He mentioned it being a Finnish style Swedish made collared axe:

    Quote Originally Posted by DarthTaco123 View Post
    A few of my recent hangs.





    Wetterlings, Granfors Bruk, Sater Banko, and Ferro Forserum seem to have made those in that style. I’m sure there are others - Just interesting.


    Wetterlings Catalog
    Cover


    Cover inside


    Page 1


    Page 2


    Page 3


    Page 4

    Page 5


    Page 6


    Page 7


    Page 8


    Page 9


    Page 10


    Page 11


    Page 12


    Page 13


    Page 14


    Page 15


    Page 16


    Back cover

  16. #36
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    Quote Originally Posted by rjdankert View Post
    Those are really neat pictures. Thanks for posting.

    For some reason I felt like matching these images:



    These images are the only ones I have found (so far) of Finnish heads with flag decals/labels.

    I also wonder if the Finns needed a lit cigarette in their mouth to properly examine an axe?

    Bob
    Quote Originally Posted by rjdankert View Post
    I am still curious about the axe mfr in the video "With a knife and an ax" (by Sakari Pälsi?). This is the closest I have found so far:



    I have followed this thread with interest and have started collecting information on Finnish (and other scandinavian) axes. So far I can only find a couple of Kellikoski branded axes with two marks above the name while I have only found Billnäs heads with one mark. Certainly not proof. I can't find a frame in the video that shows the head clear enough to positively identify. Oh, well.

    Bob




    Bob, that was sleuth.

    Finnish Museum 12.3 NOS/near unused?

  17. #37
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    Quote Originally Posted by Agent_H View Post
    . . .
    Finnish Museum 12.3 NOS/near unused?
    Well, I'll be damned.

    Bob

  18. #38
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    Here is an interesting example of the Kellokoski model 12.3:









    It's marked MB with the crown. I haven't found any solid info on Marifors-Kellokoski markings but it may or may not be as old as the one in the video we all like so much where the old fellow is shaping out a handle from scratch. The "Kellokoski" mark is further down on the cheek than the ones in the pictures that Bob captured and put together for us here.

    This is it on my small scale:



    2lbs 11 5/8oz or about 1.2kg. Interesting that both the Kellokoski and Billnäs catalogs list them at 1.1kg new – little leeway on the heavy side?
    Top down next to a 12.1 it does seem like the Finnish equivalent of an American boy’s axe – same shape and proportions but just diminutive in scale. Seems like it would need a shorter handle as well. Thinking I won’t misplace it with the color…



    Montage


    It wants a handle and to be used.

  19. #39
    Quote Originally Posted by Agent_H View Post
    Thinking I won’t misplace it with the color…
    Might not be so great in a stand of aspen in the fall.

  20. #40
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    Well, if it gets set down in this:



    You are right, I might never see it again

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